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Organic peroxide

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The vast majority of organic peroxides are colorless to yellowish liquids, or white powders to crystalline solids. Generally, it is weakly acidic, mostly insoluble in water, soluble in organic solvents such as phthalic acid and dimethyl ester, and is a class of unstable flammable and explosive compounds.

In the field of polymer materials, organic peroxides are used as initiators for free radical polymerization, initiators for grafting reactions, crosslinking agents for rubber and plastics, curing agents for unsaturated polyesters, and molecular weight and molecular weight distribution regulators in the preparation of spinning-grade polypropylene. Organic peroxides are a source of free radicals used in: (1) free radical polymerization and copolymerization initiators of vinyl and diene monomers; (2) vulcanizing agent for thermosetting resins; (3) Crosslinker of elastomer and polyethylene.

In addition to the above-mentioned polymer materials industry, organic peroxides are used as photoinitiators and sensitizers in the film industry, for photosensitive polymer materials, photosensitive resins, etc., and are also commonly used in the production of epoxy resins; In terms of medical materials, initiators composed of organic peroxides and drugs are used to synthesize drug sustained-release delivery matrices (such as microspheres, pellets, and film films); In terms of organic synthesis, organic peroxides are mainly used as oxidants and epoxidants. In addition, organic peroxides are also used in the disinfection of medical devices and food, and in the daily chemical industry such as textiles and paper, bleaching agents, decolorizing agents, fungicides, and cleaning agents.

The decomposition temperature of an organic peroxide at an effective rate largely determines its use. Other important factors are cost, solubility, and safety. Efficiency and type of free radicals generated, necessity of refrigerated storage and freight, compatibility with production systems, possible effects on the product and ability to be activated, etc. Organic peroxides can decompose at a controlled rate at high or room temperature to form reactive radicals.

All organic peroxides are thermally unstable and decompose faster with increasing temperature. A commonly used quantitative determination of organic peroxide reactivity is the determination of half-life, which is the time it takes for a certain amount of peroxide to decompose to half of its initial amount at a given temperature. Half-life data for commercial organic peroxides are now available on a computer floppy disk. The appropriate peroxide can be selected for a polymerization or process condition using a computer menu program.

These free radicals can be added to unsaturated vinyl monomers such as styrene, vinyl chloride or methyl methacrylate to initiate polymerization reactions. Certain free radicals also attack polymers such as PE to generate free radicals on the chain. When two such polymer radicals are combined, a cross-linked structure is formed.

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